The term has no definite legal connotation, but is used in law to refer to United Kingdom citizenship and matters to do with nationality. History of the British Isles Background Main articles: History of England , History of Wales , History of Scotland , History of Ireland , and History of the formation of the United Kingdom The stones of Stonehenge , in Wiltshire , were erected between and BC Settlement by anatomically modern humans of what was to become the United Kingdom occurred in waves beginning by about 30, years ago. Following the Declaration of Arbroath , Scotland maintained its independence, albeit in near-constant conflict with England. The English monarchs, through inheritance of substantial territories in France and claims to the French crown, were also heavily involved in conflicts in France, most notably the Hundred Years War , while the Kings of Scots were in an alliance with the French during this period. Settled in , the town is the oldest continuously-inhabited English town in the New World. Although the monarchy was restored , the Interregnum ensured along with the Glorious Revolution of and the subsequent Bill of Rights , and the Claim of Right Act that, unlike much of the rest of Europe, royal absolutism would not prevail, and a professed Catholic could never accede to the throne. The British constitution would develop on the basis of constitutional monarchy and the parliamentary system. During this period, particularly in England, the development of naval power and the interest in voyages of discovery led to the acquisition and settlement of overseas colonies , particularly in North America.
It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year. So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections. Change It wasn’t trendy , funny, nor was it coined on Twitter , but we thought change told a real story about how our users defined Unlike in , change was no longer a campaign slogan.
But, the term still held a lot of weight.
Jul 17, · In , Heather Smith from the International Space University in Strasbourg and Chris McKay of NASA’s Ames Research Center produced a paper speculating on the possibility of the existence of methane-based life, or “methanogens.”.
According to the International Union of Railways, the high speed train “plays a key role in a stage of sustainable development and combating climate change”. As a regular long-distance train traveller in Europe, I have to say that the opposite is true. High speed rail is destroying the most valuable alternative to the airplane; the “low speed” rail network that has been in service for decades.
The introduction of a high speed train connection invariably accompanies the elimination of a slightly slower, but much more affordable, alternative route, forcing passengers to use the new and more expensive product, or abandon the train altogether. As a result, business people switch from full-service planes to high speed trains, while the majority of Europeans are pushed into cars, coaches and low-cost airplanes.
A look at European railway history shows that the choice for the elite high speed train is far from necessary. Earlier efforts to organize speedy international rail services in Europe accompanied affordable prices and different ways to increase the speed and comfort of a rail trip. Quite a few of these services were even faster than today’s high speed trains.
Almost as fast as the high speed train, but two to three times cheaper. Five years ago I promised my readers I would not fly anymore. Hopping on a plane would be a hypocritical thing to do when you run a publication called Low-tech Magazine. Since then, I have been travelling across Europe almost exlusively by train apart from the occasional boat trip , good for some 70, km of long-distance travel.
Europe has the most amazing railway network in the world. It gets you anywhere, anytime, and it’s much more fun and interesting to travel by train than by air.
Rhine river cruise on board Uniworld’s SS Antoinette.: Amsterdam to Basel
However, they can be applied to the past few millennia because it has been demonstrated satisfactorily that the mechanism of tidal friction has not changed significantly during this period [ 6 ]. Instead, observations from the historical past, albeit crude by modern standards, have to be used. Useful records of eclipses extend back to about BC.
First, eclipse phenomena that were timed in a local system that permits the UT of the observations to be recovered. We treat these two groups separately until the analysis stage, where they are combined. Negative dates differ by 1 from BC dates e.
Directive (EU) / of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November on payment services in the internal market, amending Directives /65/EC, //EC and /36/EU and Regulation (EU) No /, and repealing Directive /64/EC (Text with EEA relevance).
The town was officially known as Schlettstadt between and , when Alsace was part of the German Empire. The origin of the name “Schlettstadt” is unclear. It probably derives from Germanic words slade or sclade meaning “marshes”, and stat for “city”. Stat could also mean “area” rather than “city”. A large number of wood piles dating from the 1st and 2nd centuries AD were discovered around St. Quirin chapel, suggesting a Roman settlement.
The area was part of the estate of Eberhard, a member of the Alsatian ducal family, who donated it to Murbach Abbey at the end of his life. Hildegard transformed the place into a religious centre when she founded St.
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(CNN) — Anyplace can string up a few lights and call it a holiday celebration. When you travel, you want more. Visiting presepju, or nativity scenes, is an integral part of Christmas in Malta.
Barcelona’s Copa Nadal is a meter swimming competition across the harbor on Christmas Day. On the evening of January 5, they arrive at the city’s port on the Santa Eulalia — their very own ship — in bearded and velvet-robed splendor. Cannons are fired, fireworks are set off, and as the mayor hands them the keys to the city, the magic of the Magi officially commences.
They parade through the streets in a magnificent cavalcade of floats that includes camels, elephants, giraffes and dazzling costumes. While legends dating as far back as the s cite the North Pole as the official home of Santa Claus and his jolly missus, the Finns would have us believe otherwise. Here, children make gingerbread cookies with Mrs. Claus, enroll in Elf School or take a calligraphy class and compose their Christmas wish lists with a traditional quill.
There are even seasonal positions available as elf workers in Santa’s post office. You may also want to visit the Ranua Wildlife Park , home to baby polar bears, wolverines and moose. Pohjoisranta 4, Rovaniemi, Finland;: Nuremberg, Germany The Nuremberg Christmas market Nurnberger Christkindlesmarkt is a German institution, pulling in more than 2 million visitors each year.
15 of the best places to have a Christmas vacation
Titan is also the only place in our solar system other than Earth to have large liquid bodies—lakes and rivers of an ethane-methane mix. Underground bodies of water do also exist on Titan, its sister moon Enceladus, and the Jovian moon Europa, however. Liquid is considered necessary for the molecular interactions of organic life, and most attention has been focused on water, but such interactions are also possible in ethane and methane.
The most prominent molecular compound was acrylonitrile azotosome. The implications for the search for extraterrestrial life are large. Not only could life potentially arise on Titan, but it could potentially be detected by hydrogen, acetylene, and ethane depletion on the surface.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a.
Anew and efficient method for the synthesis of novel 3-acetylcoumarins oxadiazoles derivatives Molecules. Application of Exp-function method for nonlinear evolution equations with variable coefficients Physics Letters A. New traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations Physics Letters A. Energy, 14 Energy, 15 An operational approach to the classical slowing-down problem.
Kerntechnik 55 Abu El-Ela and A. Radiative transfer in an aerosol mediumS. Radiative Transfer in spherical and cylindrical Medium containing aerosols.
Soirées à Strasbourg Vendredi 09 Novembre 2018 au Vendredi 16 Novembre 2018
He was taken prisoner and held for a year, but was eventually released unharmed. He felt inspired to do the same, and started traveling around preaching repentance in poverty. John Lateran is the cathedral church of the diocese of Rome, and thus possibly representative of the Church in general, but especially the papacy. Dominic there The Fourth Lateran Council was the 12th ecumenical council of the Catholic Church and affirmed transubstantiation and papal primacy, among other things.
Inventor’s name Country City/State Last publication Number of Patent applications; Eveline Maria Van Der Aa: US: Gainesville: / – Supramolecular Polymers Associative to .
Mevlana Museum in Konya was built by the Seljuk Turks in Konya was the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Anatolia. In , the Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert , starting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region. The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek -speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish -speaking one was underway.
The Mevlevi Order of dervishes , which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi , played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would evolve over the next years into the Ottoman Empire. In , the Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital , Constantinople.
Excessive speed caused French high-speed train derailment – SNCF
The Touring Archive is one of the more interesting possibly the main photographic resources for Italian 20th century history. Built up and maintained by the oldest tourism organization in the country, dating back to , it holds iconographic documentation about art, monuments, landscapes and historical events too. The collaboration with Wikimedia Italia is an important opportunity for the Archive to boost the digitization process of its material, and to highlight it for historians and researchers all over the world.
Given the origins of the archive in many cases, gathered from private donations during decades of Italian history , some of the images show a lack of basic metadata such as exact date and place. To address this issue, an Italian contemporary history project on Wikipedia has been involved in looking for more information and better categorization on Commons. Obviously, every researcher in the world is welcome in this effort!
The following items can be found on the The Lanes Armoury website, with full descriptions, photographs and prices.
Many dream of its joie de vivre shown by the countless restaurants, picturesque villages and world-famous gastronomy. Some come to follow the trail of France’s great philosophers, writers and artists, or to immerse in the beautiful language it gave the world. And others still are drawn to the country’s geographical diversity with its long coastlines, massive mountain ranges and breathtaking farmland vistas.
Understand[ edit ] France has been the world’s most popular tourist destination for quite some time. France is one of the most geographically diverse countries in Europe, containing areas as different from each other as urban chic Paris, the sunny French Riviera, long Atlantic beaches, the winter sports resorts of the French Alps, the castles of the Loire Valley, rugged Celtic Brittany and the historian’s dream that is Normandy.
France is a country of rich emotions and turbulent politics but also a place of rational thinking and Enlightenment treasures.
A History: ’s Word of the Year
The national flag is a tricolor of blue, white, and red vertical stripes. The euro replaced the franc as the official currency in The euro is divided into cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, , , and euros. The metric system is the legal standard.
The Forum’s 4th European Conference Local, National, Global: Understanding Diversity and Community in Europe.
Charles IV , the 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor and king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg  Historic map undated of Luxembourg city’s fortifications Photograph of the fortress of Luxembourg prior to demolition in Main article: County of Luxemburg The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc  today Luxembourg Castle situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes , in through an exchange act with St.
In , the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy. Nineteenth century[ edit ] After the defeat of Napoleon in , Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands. The Dutch king became, in personal union , the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it similarly to a Dutch province.
After the Luxembourg Crisis of nearly led to war between Prussia and France, the Grand Duchy’s independence and neutrality were again affirmed by the Second Treaty of London , Prussia’s troops were withdrawn from the Fortress of Luxembourg, and its Bock and surrounding fortifications were dismantled. This allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.
Twentieth century[ edit ] Frontier with German Empire’s Alsace-Lorraine, from to In August , Imperial Germany violated Luxembourg’s neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France. This allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation , Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence and political mechanisms. In , after the outbreak of World War II , Luxembourg’s neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, “entirely without justification”.
A government in exile based in London supported the Allies , sending a small group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion.
Crédits & mentions légales
When you travel , you want more. From Mexico to Malta and northern lights to sunny skies, these 15 destinations celebrate Christmas better than the rest: Malta Visiting presepju, or nativity scenes, is an integral part of Christmas in Malta. Every year, residents proudly open their shutters, and sometimes even their garage doors, to display their holy crib confections to the public. On a grander scale, the Bethlehem f’Ghajnsielem is a life-size nativity spread over 20, square meters of formerly abandoned fields.
Inhabited and animated by more than actors, including entire families, the village takes visitors back in time to Judea of 2, years ago, complete with oil lamps, turn mills, grazing animals, crafts areas teaching traditional skills and folklore, a tavern and, of course, a grotto housing baby Jesus.
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Share via Email This article is over 3 years old Participants are blindfolded and touched with roses and feathers at Shhh Dating in Dalston, London. Alicia Canter for the Observer Sally Gowland, 28, is staring deep into the eyes of a handsome young man about the same age, looking to see if they can form a romantic connection without speaking. They also have their hands and feet raised in kung-fu stances like extras in a low-budget Bruce Lee movie. Yet it can be daunting, as the plethora of options — from smartphone apps such as Tinder to speed-dating nights, lunch clubs, singles parties and old-fashioned matchmaking services — leave many paralysed by choice.
Sally Gowland, second right, at Shhh Dating. She met her husband that way. Sounds a bit weird but 23 years later it seems to have worked. Dating sites tend to match people on similarity of hobbies, political viewpoints and so on but Dr Adela Apetroaia , a chartered psychologist who runs a consultancy for people trying to find the right match, advises paying little attention to this and to focus instead on deeper qualities. But these are quite superficial qualities and not what I tell people to focus on.