BU-302: Series and Parallel Battery Configurations

Nickel-alloy thermocouples[ edit ] Characteristic functions for thermocouples that reach intermediate temperatures, as covered by nickel-alloy thermocouple types E, J, K, M, N, T. Also shown are the noble-metal alloy type P and the pure noble-metal combinations gold—platinum and platinum—palladium. Additionally, it is non-magnetic. Type K was specified at a time when metallurgy was less advanced than it is today, and consequently characteristics may vary considerably between samples. They operate very well in oxidizing atmospheres. If, however, a mostly reducing atmosphere such as hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen comes into contact with the wires, the chromium in the chromel alloy oxidizes. This reduces the emf output, and the thermocouple reads low. This phenomenon is known as green rot, due to the color of the affected alloy. Although not always distinctively green, the chromel wire will develop a mottled silvery skin and become magnetic. An easy way to check for this problem is to see whether the two wires are magnetic normally, chromel is non-magnetic.

How do you connect a voltmeter gauge to a battery/car correctly???

They also sell the shunts which can measure one current and carry another. For example, the one I am using develops a full 50mv at amps, but is rated for amps. This allows you to “scale” in a way to see smaller changes in current.

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Ford’s use a “shunt” amp guage. If I didn’t say so you would have no clue. Hey, got a drawing of that trans crosmember I asked about? Have I done something to offend you? You seem to be intentionally trying to instigate something. It sure looks like it. I certainly did not plagiarize anything and nothing I wrote was cut and paste from anyplace or anybody else. I am really surprised that anybody would stoop to calling names when it was shown they were mistaken and it really is odd that after I linked to two pictures of Fords with ammeters that are not shunt type that you would come back and despite the obvious and clear evidence say that they are.

It really is out of bounds to post out of hatred and fear when the evidence is clear that your information is wrong. It is obvious that I will not be able to provide you with any information that I have due to this type of inappropriate behavior. Sorry to have troubled you, Hawkrod Since you did not like the picture of the Mustang sensing ammeter, here is a picture of a Lincoln wiring diagram that clearly shows a sensing ammeter.

I do understand that you are not familiar with the subject but it is true.

Ray’s Chevy Restoration Site

I am reading this as saying: You are happy with losing the ammeter as long as you get the tach feature. So, you intend to discard the printed circuit that came with the cluster pictured above, buy a new one applicable to your 76 with tach option and install it in the early model cluster. When that is all done, you are going to pull the ammeter from the cluster and replace it with your current voltmeter. Sounds like a plan.

Edit Article How to Install a Car Volt Amp Gauge. In this Article: Ammeter Installation Volt Gauge Installation Community Q&A Volt and Amp gauges monitor your vehicle’s electrical system. The ammeter measures the amount of current to the battery whereas the volt gauge .

The speedometer cluster contains 2 gauges. The fuel gauge and the temperature gauge. There are 3 bulbs to illuminate the speedometer and have a blue filter over the bulb. This makes it necessary to use the correct bulb size so as not to melt the filter. These bulbs ground thru little clips on the socket so the speedometer housing has to be grounded in order for these to work.

There are 2 lights for the turn signal indicator. These indicators also ground through the sockets to the housing. These lights have a little plastic housing to prevent light from spilling in or out of the meter face.

Picked up this tach cluster.. how difficult is install?

In the past it was possible to perform a calibration of the trim position readings so that a digital range of 0 to could be optimized or calibrated for just the range of engine motion associated with a particular installation. The maximum trim-in position is often mechanically limited in the mounting bracket by the position of a stop bar to prevent the engine from hitting the transom.

This varies from boat to boat. The raw voltage outputs were re-calibrated to the 0 to range by the EMM through a software procedure.

The Balance Coil type of gauge was used on Buses up until the ’73 models (thru VIN ). Late ’73 and later Buses used the thermal type of gauge with a bayonet mount sender (single float).

December 3, I have installed the 90A Maxima internally regulated alternator in my Z. However you have to do more. The problem with the Z with regards to the elimination of the external voltage regulator is that it has an electric fuel pump shut off relay and it also has the seatbelt “interlock” module. Both of these circuits require an electric signal input so as to be able to determine whether or not the engine is actually rotating.

This signal is supplied from a connection on the external voltage regulator. On the Z there are two fuel pump relays in series with the rear-mounted electric fuel pump. One of these relays will not allow the electric fuel pump to operate when the engine is being cranked over when starting. The other relay is to shut off the electric fuel pump if the engine stops rotating. This is a safety feature in case of an accident where you could rupture a fuel line.

Although the engine may stop, you would not want the electric fuel pump to continue to feed a potential fire. The early alternators have an “N” terminal which is the common connection to the three stator windings.

How to Wire a Marine Fuel Tank Gauge

Batteries achieve the desired operating voltage by connecting several cells in series; each cell adds its voltage potential to derive at the total terminal voltage. Parallel connection attains higher capacity by adding up the total ampere-hour Ah. Some packs may consist of a combination of series and parallel connections. Laptop batteries commonly have four 3.

Such a configuration is called 4s2p, meaning four cells in series and two in parallel.

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From the passenger side which is left to right in the picture above. You can see the letters stamped in the insulation material around the posts. A volt meter applied to the A terminal on the Temp gauge should fluctuate plus and minus near 5 volts. Fuel Gauge The fuel gauge should have the following resistances S to Ground ohms S to I ohms S to A ohms I to A Zero I to Ground ohms A to Ground ohms The fuel sending unit wires are located on top of the gas tank where they are hard to get to without dropping the tank.

The fuel sending unit should have a pink wire with voltage on the isolated center post. The other black wire on the sending unit with a tab style connector is a ground to the frame. Make sure it has good contact. To be sure the problem is not the gauge, you can momentarily short the pink wire on the output of the sender to ground, and this should show up as FULL on your gauge. DO NOT hold it for very long in this position. If the gauge does not move from EMPTY either the wiring has an open circuit no voltage, or no connection to ground or he gauge is bad.

If it does move, the sending unit is bad.

Kelvin (4-wire) Resistance Measurement

They’re small and relatively unobtrusive, so a number of them can be clustered together in an instrument panel, or arranged neatly across the bottom of something like a speedometer or tach. Furthermore, they’re easy to check with a quick sweep of the eyes and when there’s the problem, they stand out like a sore thumb.

Lastly, they’re cheap to produce, which are all good reasons for OEM manufactures to use them.

AEM’s digital Voltmeter display gauge delivers unsurpassed accuracy and visibility. Each gauge includes 24 color-coded (Red, Green, Yellow) LED lights that change from green to yellow to red for immediate reference to the measured parameter, and an integrated thee-digit display that reveals real-time operating conditions.

Whether you own a performance sports car or a motorcycle, an ammeter can be a very handy gauge to have. This tool will help you determine whether or not your alternator and battery are working in harmony. These meters are used in many cars where there are multiple pieces of equipment that are dependent on the battery. Although some cars come with a very simple ammeter already installed, for those that make additions to their car or motorcycle, it is recommended that you wire up a more professional style of the meter to ensure that everything is functioning properly and your battery is staying charged.

For some components, it is very important that they do not lose power, as items that incorporate the use of computers may reset to default settings if they lose power entirely, which could harm the performance of your motorcycle or car. By installing an ammeter, you can put your mind at ease that you are on top of your voltage needs. Step 1 – Gather Materials Before beginning your project, you should make sure that you have everything that you need so you will not have to stop what you are doing to look for a tool.

You should gather a pair of safety goggles, gloves that permit hand dexterity, wire strippers, a red gauge wire that comes equipped with eyelet terminals, a socket wrench, and a screwdriver. After you have gathered all of your tools, you are now ready to begin installing your ammeter.

Physics Lab Equipment

This gauge kit comes with 12′ of wiring harness to the gauge, and the sending unit, you do not have to purchase these separately unless you want to have spares! Kit comes with a 12′ cable, exhaust probe, and EGT thermocouple and mounting bung! It’s best to mount this as close to the cylinder head as possible. These allow you to mount your gauges, while also protecting and beautifying your gnarly wiring! If you get a drop in boost it means you lose a lot of power, and this means something is wrong!

You can also use this to adjust your wastegate.

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The following instructions are for creating a MegaSquirt to Relay Board cable. It is for those who are creating their own harness. With both boxes mounted, measure the distance between them from DB connector to DB connector – this will be the length that you will cut the individual wires. If you are not using a Relay Board, allow enough length in each of your wires to reach the target component. It is often better to be too long and trim afterwards, than to be too short and have to splice additional lengths on.

For a Relay Board cable, you can move both heat shrink pieces to the center of the wire length, and then twisting the center of the wire with a few twists to hold the heat shrink in place, so that it does not fall off the wire or run down while soldering the connection. For a pigtail, you can slip the heat shrink tubing on later. Orient them so that both are facing the same way, with pins 1 – 19 closest to you.

You will definitely want something to hold the connector, since as you attach more wires it wants to move around more, while at the same time you have less room to solder. Having it held stable helps a lot.

Easy Installing of a Car Volt Amp Gauge